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Monday, July 14, 2014

50 States: Classification Systems, Adults, Juveniles, Public v. Private Registries and Duration of Registration


In Virginia legislation has been proposed and passed for many years under the claim its Adam Walsh Act/SORNA mandated. 

Like “tiering”, 15 and 25 years minimum registration (instead of the original 10 and 20 years) and juvenile mandates. 

What states tier based on risk or on the conviction which was probably a plea to a lower offense? 

What states have private registries and who is listed on them? 

I contacted numerous people looking for this data but no one had a complete list.  

So I took a December 2013 ATSA 50 State Level/Tier spreadsheet, I then visited http://klaaskids.org/megans-law/  for all 50 states, then I visited more than half of states registries (where I had missing info) and finally I did an Internet search for states with private registries. 

Below are two charts (too wide to leave as one) for all 50 states:
  1. Which ones have classifications systems for their Sex Offenders and which ones don’t
  2. If they do group the offenders is it Risk-Based or Conviction Based
  3. How long registration is required in each state before petition is allowed
  4. What states have private/authority registries (not on the Internet) and if they do who is included on the private lists
  5. Which ones require juveniles to register or not
  6. And with all of these differences, what states have been certified as AWA/SORNA compliant by the SMART Office
There are a few pieces of missing data (it notes undetermined) that I'm still looking for and hope to fill in soon.
 

This is all good information to have when you are asking your State Delegate or Senator to sponsor one of the Top 8 Goals that could be accomplished through legislation. 

In general it’s good to know what other states are doing. But when it comes to opposing proposed legislation it’s even better. 

Knowledge and facts are power. 

Mary 

Chart #1


 
Registry Classification System Divided into Levels/Tiers/ Categories
Registry Classification System is Risk Based
Registry Classification System is Conviction Based
Who Must Register
Alabama
No but they  have Sexually Violent Predators
 N/A
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Alaska
No
 N/A
 N/A
Adults Only (data from 2011)
Arizona
3 Levels and they  have Sexually Violent Predators
Level 1 -Low Sex Offense Risk and Lower General Recidivism Risk                                                             Level 2 - Intermediate Sex Offense Risk or Intermediate or High General Recidivism Risk                                                                    Level 3 - High or Very High Sex Offense Risk or Intermediate or Very High General Recidivism Risk
 N/A
Adults and Rulings by Judge Mandating Juvenile
Arkansas
4 Levels
 N/A
Not Conviction-Based, but History-Based                                                   Level 1 -No history of sex offenses                                                   Level 2 - History of Offending                                                Level 3 - History of repeat offending  and/or strong antisocial, violent or predatory personality                           Level 4-SVP, Sexually Violent Predator
Adults and Some Juveniles
California
6 Levels-Adults                                    8 Levels-Juveniles              they also have Sexually Violent Predators
Level 1 -Low                                                            Level 2 - Medium Low                                                            Level 3 - Medium                                                      Level 4 - Medium High                                                           Level 5 - High                                                                 Level 6 - Very High
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Colorado
No but they  have Sexually Violent Predators
 N/A
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Connecticut
No
 N/A
 N/A
Adults Only (data from 2011)
Delaware
3 Levels
 N/A
Tier 1 -Low                                                      Tier 2- Moderate                                                      Tier 3- High
Adults and ALL Juveniles
Florida
No but they are called  Sex Offenders  or  Sexual Predators based on conviction  AND they have Sexually Violent Predators
 N/A
 N/A
Adults and ALL Juveniles
Georgia
3 Levels
Level 1                                                    Level 2                                                            Sexually Dangerous Predator                                                   Note: a Search of GA's site revealed there are offenders who are "not leveled"       
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Hawaii
3 Levels
 N/A
Tier 1 -Low                                                      Tier 2- Moderate                                                      Tier 3/Repeat Covered Offender
Adults Only (data from 2011)
Idaho
No but they have Violent Sexual Predators
 N/A
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Illinois
No but they are called Sexually Dangerous Persons, Sexually Violent Persons, Murderers  or   Sexual Predators based on conviction and then there are non-designated offenders
 N/A
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Indiana
No but they are called Sexually Dangerous Predators, Offenders Against Children, Sex Offenders and Violent Offenders based on conviction
 N/A
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Iowa
3 Levels
 N/A
Tier 1 -Low                                                      Tier 2- Moderate                                                      Tier 3- High                                            They also have Sexually Violent Predators
Adults and Some Juveniles
Kansas
No
 N/A
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Kentucky
No
 N/A
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Louisiana
3 Levels
 N/A
Tier 1 -Sex Offender                                                    Tier 2- Child Predator                                                      Tier 3- Aggravated Offense    They also have Sexually Violent Predators
Adults and Some Juveniles
Maine
No (per ME website)
 N/A
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Maryland
3 Levels
 N/A
Tier 1 -Low                                                      Tier 2- Moderate                                                      Tier 3- High
Adults and Some Juveniles
Massachusetts
3 Levels
Level 1 -Low                                                                 Level 2 - Moderate                                                    Level 3 - High                                                   They also have Sexually Violent Predators                                                  
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Michigan
3 Levels
 N/A
Tier 1 -Low                                                      Tier 2- Moderate                                                      Tier 3- High
Adults and ALL Juveniles
Minnesota
3 Levels
Level 1 -Low                                                                   
Level 2 - Moderate                                                    Level 3 - High, includes Sexual Psychopathic Personality (SPP) and Sexually Dangerous Person (SDP)                                                       
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Mississippi
3 Levels and they have Sexual Predator
 N/A
Tier 1 -Low                                                      Tier 2- Moderate                                                      Tier 3- High                                   
Adults and Some Juveniles
Missouri
No but they do have Sexually Violent Predators
 N/A
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Montana
3 Levels
Level 1 -Low, Violent Offender                                                    Level 2 - Moderate                                                    Level 3 - High, Sexually Violent Predator                                                                *After evaluation is complete the final designation is made by the judge                           
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Nebraska
No
 N/A
 N/A
Adults Only (data from 2011)
Nevada
4 Levels
Tier 0 -Extremely Low                                                            Tier 1 -Low                                                      Tier 2- Moderate                                      Tier 3- High
 N/A
Adults and ALL Juveniles
New Hampshire
3 Levels
 N/A
Tier 1 -Low                                                      Tier 2- Moderate                                                      Tier 3- High
Adults and Some Juveniles
New Jersey
3 Levels
Tier 1 -Low                                                      Tier 2- Moderate                                                      Tier 3- High
 
Adults and Some Juveniles
New Mexico
No
 N/A
 N/A
Adults Only (data from 2011)
New York
3 Levels and they have Sexual Predator, Sexually Violent Offender and Predicate Sex Offender
Level 1 -Low                                                                      Level 2 - Moderate                                                   Level 3 - High
 N/A
Adults and ALL Juveniles
North Carolina
No but they do have Sexually Violent Predators
 N/A
 N/A
Adults and Rulings by Judge Mandating Juvenile
North Dakota
3 Levels and they have Sexual Dangerous Individuals (SDI)
Level 1 -Low                                                                      Level 2 - Moderate                                                    Level 3 - High
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Ohio
3 Levels
 N/A
Tier 1 -Low                                                      Tier 2- Moderate                                                      Tier 3- High
Adults and ALL Juveniles
Oklahoma
3 Levels
 N/A
Tier 1 -Low                                                      Tier 2- Moderate                                                      Tier 3- High
Adults and Rulings by Judge Mandating Juvenile
Oregon
3 Levels implemented by legislation January 2013 will be in full effect by December 2016  they have Sexual Violent Dangerous Offender
Level 1 -Low                                                                 Level 2 - Moderate                                                    Level 3 - High
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Pennsylvania
3 Levels and they have Sexual Violent Deliquent Child and Sexually Violent Predator
 N/A
Tier 1 -Low                                                      Tier 2- Moderate                                                      Tier 3- High
Adults and Some Juveniles
Rhode Island
3 Levels and they have Sexually Violent Predator
Level 1 -Low                                                                Level 2 - Moderate                                                   Level 3 - High
 N/A
Adults and Rulings by Judge Mandating Juvenile
South Carolina
No but they have Sexually Violent Predators
 N/A
N/A 
Adults and Some Juveniles
South Dakota
3 Levels
 N/A
Tier 1 -Low                                                      Tier 2- Moderate                                                      Tier 3- High
Adults and ALL Juveniles
Tennessee
No but they have Sexual Offenders and Violent Offenders
 N/A
 N/A
Adults Only (data from 2011)
Texas
3 Levels and they have Sexually Violent Predator
Level 1 -Low                                                                    Level 2 - Moderate                                                   Level 3 - High
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Utah
No
 N/A
 N/A
Adults and Rulings by Judge Mandating Juvenile
Vermont
No but they are called Category 2-Unrated, Category 2-High Risk, Category 2-Not High Risk  and they have Sexually Violent Predators
 N/A
 N/A
Adults and Some Juveniles
Virginia
No but they are called Non-Violent or Violent based on conviction Additionally they have Sexually Violent Predators
 N/A
 N/A
Adults and Rulings by Judge Mandating Juvenile
Washington
3 Levels and they have Sexually Violent Predator
Level 1 -Low                                                                     Level 2 - Moderate                                                    Level 3 - High
 N/A
Adults and Rulings by Judge Mandating Juvenile
West Virginia
No but they have Sexually Violent Predators
 N/A
 N/A
Adults Only (data from 2011)
Wisconsin
3 Levels and they have Sexually Violent Predator
 N/A
Level 1 -Low                                         Level 2 - Moderate                                                Level 3 - High
Adults and Rulings by Judge Mandating Juvenile
Wyoming
No
 N/A
 N/A
Adults and ALL Juveniles
District of Columbia
3 Levels and they have Sexual Psychopaths
 N/A
Class A                                                               Class B                                                                       Class C
Adults Only (data from 2011)
Guam
Undetermined
 
 
Adults Only (data from 2011)
Northern Mariana Islands
Undetermined
 
 
Undetermined
America Samoa
Undetermined
 
 
Undetermined
Puerto Rico
Undetermined
 
 
Adults Only (data from 2011)
Virgin Islands
Undetermined
 
 
Undetermined

Chart #2

 
Mandated Timeframe /Length to Register Before Petition for Removal Allowed
Public Registry             Lists/Shows
Private/Law Enforcement Registry Lists
Certified Adam Walsh Act/SORNA Compliant by SMART Office
Alabama
Adults- Lifetime                 Juveniles- 10 years from release unless they have a prior sexual conviction, lifetime
Everyone
N/A
Yes
Alaska
Aggravated Offense or 2, 2+ Non-Aggravated Offenses- Lifetime                                    Non-Aggravated Offenses- 15 years
Everyone
N/A
No
Arizona
Lifetime                                  
Everyone
N/A
No
Arkansas
Adults- 15 years to Lifetime               Juveniles- 10 years or until age 21, whichever is longer
Everyone
N/A
No
California
Lifetime                                 
Everyone
N/A
No
Colorado
Convicted of:                                                                                                          Class 4,5 or 6 Felony- 10 years                                                                           Class 2 or 3 Felony- 20 years                                                                                 Sexually Violent Predator-Lifetime
Everyone
N/A
Yes
Connecticut
10 years to Lifetime
Everyone
N/A
No
Delaware
Tier 1 -15 years                      Tier 2- 25 years                                                         Tier 3- Lifetime
Tier 2                     Tier 3
Tier 1
Yes
Florida
Lifetime                                  
Everyone
N/A
Yes
Georgia
Lifetime  but some may qualify for removal after 10 years  under O.C.G.A. 42-1-12 (g) (1)
Everyone
N/A
No
Hawaii
Includes ANY crime against a child (non-sexual):                                                                                                                     Tier 1 -10 years                                                                                                             Tier 2- 25 years                                                                                                            Tier 3/Repeat Covered Offender-Lifetime,  but some may qualify for removal under section 846E-10, HRS
Everyone
N/A
No
Idaho
Convicted of Aggravated Offense, Recidivists and Sexually Violent Predators- Lifetime                                                                                             Everyone Else- 10 years
Everyone
N/A
No
Illinois
Non-designated offenders- 10 years                                                        Sexually Dangerous Person, Sexually Violent Person, Murderer  or  Sexual Predators- Lifetime                                                                                         
Everyone
N/A
No
Indiana
Sexually Violent Predators, Offenders Against Children under 12 and Offenders using force or threat of force- Lifetime                                                                                                                    Everyone Else- 10 years                                  
Everyone
N/A
No
Iowa
Recidivists and Sexually Violent Predators- Lifetime                          Everyone Else- 10 years
Everyone
N/A
No
Kansas
Includes certain drug and Violent offenses (non-sexual):                                                                                           Adults:                                                                                                                                15 years, 25 years or Lifetime depending on conviction                                                                                                               Juveniles 14 years of age and younger:                                                                                                                               5 years or until they turn 18 years old                                                                                                                                 Juveniles over 14 years of age:  Lifetime
Everyone
N/A
Yes
Kentucky
Depending on Conviction 20 years or Lifetime                                                                                                                            All Out of State Offenders relocating to KY- Lifetime
Everyone
N/A
No
Louisiana
Tier 1 -15 years                      Tier 2- 25 years                                                         Tier 3- Lifetime                                                                                                      Status Review can be requested every 3 years to the Sex Offender Assessment Panel
Everyone
N/A
Yes
Maine
Depending on Conviction                                                                                     Tier 1- 10 years                     Tier 2- 25 years                                                                Tier 3- Lifetime (most offenders).                                                                   Maine’s Registry postings state duration (in years) not Tiers. Definition of Tiers no where on Maine Registry only in statute.
Everyone
N/A
No
Maryland
Adults:                                                                                                                       Tier 1 -15 years                     Tier 2- 25 years                                                          Tier 3- Lifetime                                                                                   Juveniles: Automatically released from private registry when turn 21 years old unless judge ordered public registration                               
Adults
Juveniles
Yes
Massachusetts
Convicted of 2+  sex crimes, designated as Sexually Violent Predators or subjected lifetime by the Sex offender Board- Lifetime                                                                                                                          Everyone Else- 20 years                                   
Level 3
Level 1                 Level 2
No
Michigan
Tier 1 -15 years                     Tier 2- 25 years                                                          Tier 3- Lifetime                                         
Everyone
N/A
Yes
Minnesota
Depending on Conviction, not risk                                                                                                                                           10 years                                                                                                    Lifetime                                               
Everyone
N/A
No
Mississippi
Tier 1 -15 years                     Tier 2- 25 years                                                          Tier 3- Lifetime                                        
Everyone
N/A
Yes
Missouri
Includes Non-sexual convictions against children:                                           Non-Sexual Offense against children by parent or guardian- 10 years                                                                                                                     Statutory Rape 19 years or younger with 13 year or older victim-  2 years
Everyone
N/A
Yes
Montana
Includes Non-sexual convictions                                                                           Tier 1 -10 years                      Tier 2- 25 years                                                        Tier 3- Lifetime                                        
Everyone
N/A
No
Nebraska
If conviction was less than 1 year of prison -15 years                                                                                                                                      If conviction was more than 1 year of prison, non-aggravated felony including attempt/conspiracy- 25 years                                                                                                                                      If conviction was more than 1 year of prison, aggravated or had any prior sex offense - Lifetime                                        
Everyone
N/A
No
Nevada
Undetermined
Tier 2                     Tier 3            
Tier 0                 Tier 1            
Yes
New Hampshire
Tier 1 -10 years, but may petition for removal from public list after 5 years.                                                                                                                               Tier 2- Lifetime, but may petition for removal from public list after 15 years.                                                                                                                                            Tier 3- Lifetime                                        
 Tier 2                 Tier 3 
 Tier 1 
No
New Jersey
Committed 1 Offense and can prove they are not a risk- 15 years                                                                                                                              Rest- Lifetime
Some Tier 2's        Tier 3            
Tier 1                                          Some Tier 2's                                                      
No
New Mexico
Depending on conviction                                                                                              10 years                                                                                                                                20 years                                                                                                                 Lifetime
Everyone
N/A
No
New York
Level 1- 20 years                    Level 2 & 3 - Lifetime
Level 2                      Level 3
Level 1
No
North Carolina
Depending on conviction                                                                                            30 years, but may petition for removal from public list after 10  years                                                                            Lifetime                                                    
Adults
Juveniles
No
North Dakota
Includes non-sexual convictions                                                                            Level 1 -15 years                     Level 2 - 25 years                                                 Level 3 - Lifetime
Everyone
N/A
No
Ohio
Adults:                                                                                                                         Tier 1 -15 years                                                                                                             Tier 2- 25 years                                                                                                            Tier 3- Lifetime                                         Juveniles:                                                                                                                    Tier 1 -10 years                                                                                                             Tier 2- 20 years                                                                                                            Tier 3- Lifetime        
Everyone
N/A
Yes
Oklahoma
Tier 1 -15 years                    Tier 2- 25 years                                                           Tier 3- Lifetime                                        
Everyone
N/A
No
Oregon
Level 1 -yet to be determined for new system (Dec 2013)                               Level 2 - yet to be determined for new system (Dec 2013)                                                                                                                             Level 3 - yet to be determined for new system (Dec 2013)   
Undetermined new system to be complete by December 2016      
Undetermined new system to be complete by December 2016      
No
Pennsylvania
Tier 1 -15 years                    Tier 2- 25 years                                                           Tier 3- Lifetime                                        
Adults
Juveniles
Yes
Rhode Island
Includes Non-sexual convictions against children:                                                                                                                 Level 1 - 10 years                                                                                                       Level 2 - Undetermined                                                                                     Level 3 - Lifetime
Level 2 (2006 or later conviction)       Level 3
Level 1
No
South Carolina
Lifetime                                 
Everyone
N/A
Yes
South Dakota
Tier 1 -10 years                  Tier 2- 25 years                                                            Tier 3- Lifetime                                        
Everyone
N/A
Yes
Tennessee
Sexual Offenders- may apply for termination from the Registry 10 years after expiration of their sentences, provided they have been on the registry a minimum of 5 years                                                                                                 Violent Sexual Offenders- Lifetime
Undetermined
Undetermined
Yes
Texas
Depending on conviction                                                                                                                           10 years                                                                                                                          Most- Lifetime                                                    
Everyone
N/A
No
Utah
Depending on conviction                                                                                             10 years                                                                                           Lifetime                                                     
Everyone
N/A
No
Vermont
Depending on conviction                                                                                             10 years                                                                             Lifetime                                                    
Everyone
N/A
No
Virginia
Depending on conviction                                                                                             15 years                                                                                                                                25 years                                                                                                                        Most- Lifetime                                                    
Everyone
N/A
No
Washington
Depending on conviction, not risk                                                                  Class C Felony - 10 years                                                                                         Class B Felony - 15 years                                                                                       Class A Felony - Lifetime
Everyone
N/A
No
West Virginia
Depending on conviction                                                                                             10 years                                                                                               Lifetime                                                     
Everyone
N/A
No
Wisconsin
Depending on conviction                                                                                             15 years                                                                              Lifetime                                                     
Level 3
Level 1      Level 2
No
Wyoming
Lifetime                                 
Adults
Juveniles
Yes
District of Columbia
Class A- Lifetime                                                                                               Class B- 10 years                                                                                                  Class C- 10 years
Class A                                                                Class B        
Undetermined
No
Guam
Undetermined
Undetermined
Undetermined
Yes
Northern Mariana Islands
Undetermined
Undetermined
Undetermined
Yes
America Samoa
Undetermined
Undetermined
Undetermined
No
Puerto Rico
Undetermined
Undetermined
Undetermined
No
Virgin Islands
Undetermined
Undetermined
Undetermined
Yes